Czech Mycology 48(2): 97–138             Article published: 25th September, 1995 doi: 10.33585/cmy.48202


Vergiftungen durch höhere Pilze (Intoxications by higher fungi.)

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Article presents a review of poisonous macrofungi and their toxic constituents concerning chemistry, site and mechanism of action, absorption, fate and excretion of the main toxins and signs, diagnosis, treatment and course of human poisoning. Considered are macrofungi containing 1. Irritants of the gastrointestinal tract with rapid onset of action. 2. Muscarine in Inocybe and Clitocybe species. 3. Toxins affecting the central nervous system, i.e. ibotenic acid resp. muscimol in Amanita muscaria and A. pantherina and hallucinogenic indoles in Psilocybe, Panaeolus und related species . 4. Toxins affecting parenchymatous organs with delayed onset of symptoms, causing mainly liver and /or kidney injury: The cyclopeptides in Amanita phalloides, A. virosa and A. verna and in Galerina and Lepiota species . Gyromitrine resp. methylhydrazine in Gyromitraesculenta. Cortinarius toxins in C. orellanus, C. speciosissimus and related species . 5. Miscellaneous substances, not necessarily toxic per se, e.g. coprin in Coprinus atramentarius which produces disulfiram-like effects when consumed with alcohol. - Intolerance to trehalose in persons with a genetic deficiency of the intestinal enzyme trehalase. - Hypersensitivity reactions to ingested or inhaled antigens of edible mushrooms, e.g. skin and respiratory reactions or even immunohaemolytic reactions complicated by secondary renal failure.

Keywords:     Fungal intoxications, muscarine, amatoxins, hallucinogenic fungi, Cortinarius toxins

Full citation:

Seeger R. (1995): Vergiftungen durch höhere Pilze (Intoxications by higher fungi.) – Czech Mycology 48(2): 97–138. copy to clipboard

doi: 10.33585/cmy.48202

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