Czech Mycology 67(1): 1–22             Article published online: 10th April, 2015 doi: 10.33585/cmy.67101

ABDEL-HAFEZ S. I. I., ABO-ELYOUSR K. A. M., ABDEL-RAHIM I. R.

Leaf surface and endophytic fungi associated with onion leaves and their antagonistic activity against Alternaria porri.

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Abstract

Sixty-eight fungal species belonging to 29 genera were isolated as leaf surface and endophytic fungi from healthy and purple blotch diseased onion leaves. The fungal populations associated with diseased onion leaves (1.360 × 103 CFU/g leaf in the phyllosphere, 2.614 CFU/leaf segment in the phylloplane and 1.324 CFU/leaf segment in the surface-sterilised diseased leaves) were higher than those in healthy samples (0.804 × 103 CFU in the phyllosphere, 1.184 CFU in the phylloplane, and 0.35 CFU as endophytes). Endophytic fungi of healthy leaves were represented by 12 genera and 15 species, while fungi of surface-sterilised diseased leaves included 17 species from 13 genera. The mycobiota associated with surface-sterilised diseased leaves were different from the endophytic fungi of healthy samples, whereas the disease may stimulate colonisation of opportunistic fungi causing secondary infections such as Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium spp. In contrast, healthy leaves were a source of antagonistic endophytic fungi such as Trichoderma harzianum and T. koningii. Testing the antagonistic effect of 91 fungal isolates against Alternaria porri showed that nine isolates of Trichoderma produced the highest suppressive potential (73.1%) depending on competition and mycoparasitism. Epicoccum nigrum and Penicillium oxalicum exhibited antibiosis against A. porri producing a 12 mm broad inhibition zone. In conclusion, the quantitative and qualitative compositions of fungi associated with onion leaves were distinctly influenced by A. porri infection. Mycobiota associated with asymptomatic onion leaves such as Epicoccum nigrum, Penicillium oxalicum and Trichoderma harzianum are a natural source of eco-friendly bioagents. They showed an effective antagonistic potential against A. porri, and may thus be applied as an alternative to fungicides.


Keywords:     phyllosphere, phylloplane, endophytes, purple blotch disease, antagonism

Article history: received 21 November 2014, revised 4 February 2015, accepted 9 March 2015, published online 10 April 2015

Full citation:

Abdel-Hafez S. I. I., Abo-Elyousr K. A. M., Abdel-Rahim I. R. (2015): Leaf surface and endophytic fungi associated with onion leaves and their antagonistic activity against Alternaria porri. – Czech Mycology 67(1): 1–22. copy to clipboard


doi: 10.33585/cmy.67101

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